Oliver Twist, (also known as The Parish Boy's Progress) by Charles Dickens (1812-1870) was first published in 1838.
“The story is about an orphan, Oliver Twist, who endures a miserable existence in a workhouse and then is placed with an undertaker. He escapes and travels to London where he meets the Artful Dodger, the leader of a gang of juvenile pickpockets. Naively unaware of their unlawful activities, Oliver is led to the lair of their elderly criminal trainer Fagin”. (Citation from Wikipedia)